Power Technologies’ Productions of Space

Sámi Territoriality and Indigenity

Focus: Present-day conflicts on space and resources that in the same time are conflicts between indigenous and state territoriality

The Sámi are the only recognized indigenous people in Europe. The approximately 70.000 to 100.000 members of this community call the area they have been living in and used of since time immemorial Sápmi – the Sámiland. It extends over the northern parts of today’s nation states of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Due to partially divergent interests the Sámi and state representatives are involved in an increasing number of several conflicts on space and resources in northern Europe. From the 1970s, the global emergence of the native revival led to a process of scale jumping – the shift from the state to the international political arena. Sámi have been particularly engaged in the enforcement of legal norms that aim to guarantee universally acknowledged indigenous rights. Documents such as the ILO Convention 169 from 1989 and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples from 2007 permit an argumentation according to international law in order to legitimize their territorial claims within Sápmi.

Present-day conflicts on space and resources that in the same time are conflicts between indigenous and state territoriality will form the centre of the first research phase, which mostly comprises of empirical field work. Based on the Foucauldian assumption that space is of fundamental importance in any exercise of power, his triangle terminology of sovereignty, discipline and security will serve as a heuristic model in order to examine specific conflicts in the European north. With four case studies the role of self-definitions, definitions by others and legal definitions of Sámi as an indigenous people based on a territoriality, which bears a specific social organization and economic practices, will be analyzed. In this context reindeer herding appears to be of significant importance to the Sámi self-concept as it plays a central role in Sámi-state relations.

The case studies are:

Timber industry in Finland
The forests in Finnish Lapland are high in lichens, which are a basic food for reindeers, but also in valuable timber of which premium products e.g. fine papers are manufactured. Due to the timber industry’s massive exploitation of this vulnerable ecosystem, lichens will be lost over decades while some areas never will recover from deforestation. However there are some legal limitations that bind the state timber industry not to harm reindeer herding significantly. A definition in question.

National parks in Norway
With the aim to preserve nature for future generations the Norwegian government establishes several national parks. This means affects territories that both are perceived as peripheral by the dominating community and comprise of Sámi pasture grounds. Protection levels to be implemented handicap the use of modern technologies e.g. helicopters and motorbikes that nowadays are necessary to reindeer industries to such an extent that it endangers its future prospect.

Swedish-Norwegian Border
Since the mid-18th century a treaty regulates the Swedish-Norwegian border. As its part the Lappcodicil guarantees the access to pasture grounds to the Sámi regardless of the citizenship they may have adopted. Since the dissolution of the Union in 1905 the right has been more and more abridged in the framework of specifying conventions. By the most actual convention’s expiry in 2003, some disagreement has arisen both between the two states and within the Sámi community itself.

EU Interreg IIIA North

In one of the three sub-programs called Sápmi the specific Sámi perspective is adapted. It aims at spatializing Sápmi as a territorial unit to make a cross-border cooperation of all Sámi possible. The target is to strengthen and develop the Sámi identity, culture, language and livelihoods.

Based on the analysis of these concrete productions of space this project pursues refining the Foucauldian triangle concept towards a model of power technologies’ productions of space. It deals with the inner workings of productions of space as power-technological medium in conflicts and enhances the understanding of conflictuous clashes of state and indigenous territoriality. Moreover, it may be able to support attempts to solve these kinds of conflicts.

Results/Publications

Strauss, H. / Mazzullo, N. (2014): Narratives, bureaucracies and indigenous legal orders: resource governance in Finnish Lapland. In: Powell, R. C. / Dodds, K. (Hrsg.): Polar Geopolitics? Knowledges, Resources and Legal Regimes. Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar, S. 295-312

Habeck, Joachim Otto / Miggelbrink, Judith / Koch, Peter / Mazzullo, Nuccio (2013): Nomadic and Indigenous Spaces: Paths and Perspectives. In: Miggelbrink, Judith / Habeck, Joachim Otto / Koch, Peter / Mazzullo, Nuccio (Hrsg.): Nomadic and Indigenous Spaces. Productions and Cognitions. Farnham: Ashgate, S. 1-33

Miggelbrink, Judith / Habeck, Joachim Otto / Koch, Peter / Mazzullo, Nuccio (Hrsg.) (2013): Nomadic and Indigenous Spaces. Productions and Cognitions. Farnham: Ashgate, 298 S.

Belina, Bernd / Miggelbrink, Judith (2012): Raum, Recht und Indigenität - Zu den Kämpfen um Landrechte indigener Völker am Beispiel der Sámi in Finnland [Space, Law and Indigeneity – Fighting for indigenous peoples‘ land rights: the Finnish Sámi for example]. In: Peripherie 126/127, S. 190-217

Mazzullo, Nuccio (2012): The sense of time in the north: a Sámi perspective. In: Polar Record 48 (3), S. 214-222

Mazzullo, Nuccio (2012): Tožestva v Procese Sozdanija: Indenticnost sami i Zemlepolzvanie v kontekste strategii razvtija v severnoi Finlandii [Identität im Entstehungsprozess: Identität der Sami und Landnutzung im Kontext von Entwicklungsstrategien in Nordfinnland]. In: Ivanova, A. A. (Hrsg.): Pravovye i sozial’nye problemy razvitija narodov arktiki [Rechtliche und soziale Entwicklungsprobleme der Völker der Arktis]. Jakutsk, S.46-56

Istomin, Kirill / Mazzullo, Nuccio E. (2011): Rentier. In: Nippa, Annegret und Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg (Hrsg.): Kleines abc des Nomadismus: [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Brisante Begegnungen. Nomaden in einer sesshaften Welt" vom 17.11.2011 - 20.05.2012 im Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg] Hamburg, S. 182

Koch, Peter (2011): Indigenität. In: Nippa, Annegret und Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg (Hrsg.): Kleines abc des Nomadismus: [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Brisante Begegnungen. Nomaden in einer sesshaften Welt" vom 17.11.2011 - 20.05.2012 im Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg] Hamburg, S. 98

Koch, Peter (2011): Mehrheit und Minderheit. In: Nippa, Annegret und Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg (Hrsg.): Kleines abc des Nomadismus: [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Brisante Begegnungen. Nomaden in einer sesshaften Welt" vom 17.11.2011 - 20.05.2012 im Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg] Hamburg, S. 126-127

Koch, Peter / Miggelbrink, Judith (2011): Being in the frontline of a Sámi culture and a private business : cross-border reindeer herding in Northern Norway and Sweden. In: Nomadic peoples, 15 (2011) 1, S. 114-143

Mazzullo, Nuccio E. (2011): Lappland oder Sápmi. In: Nippa, Annegret und Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg (Hrsg.): Kleines abc des Nomadismus: [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Brisante Begegnungen. Nomaden in einer sesshaften Welt" vom 17.11.2011 - 20.05.2012 im Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg] Hamburg, S. 124-125

Mazzullo, Nuccio E. (2011): Sámi. In: Nippa, Annegret und Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg (Hrsg.): Kleines abc des Nomadismus: [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Brisante Begegnungen. Nomaden in einer sesshaften Welt" vom 17.11.2011 - 20.05.2012 im Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg] Hamburg, S. 190-191

Miggelbrink, Judith (2011): Raum. In: Nippa, Annegret und Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg (Hrsg.): Kleines abc des Nomadismus: [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Brisante Begegnungen. Nomaden in einer sesshaften Welt" vom 17.11.2011 - 20.05.2012 im Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg] Hamburg, S. 164-165

Miggelbrink, Judith (2011): Territorium. In: Nippa, Annegret und Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg (Hrsg.): Kleines abc des Nomadismus: [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Brisante Begegnungen. Nomaden in einer sesshaften Welt" vom 17.11.2011 - 20.05.2012 im Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg] Hamburg, S. 212

Miggelbrink, Judith / Mazzullo, Nuccio E. (2011): Winterweide und Holzlieferant : Interessenkonflikte bei der Waldnutzung in Nordfinnland
In: Geographische Rundschau, 63 (7/8), S. 36-42

Miggelbrink, Judith / Paul, Jürgen / Syrbe, Daniel / Scharrer, Ulf (2011): Grenze. In: Nippa, Annegret und Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg (Hrsg.): Kleines abc des Nomadismus: [Publikation zur Ausstellung "Brisante Begegnungen. Nomaden in einer sesshaften Welt" vom 17.11.2011 - 20.05.2012 im Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg] Hamburg, S. 82-83

Mazzullo, Nuccio E. (2010): More than meat on the hoof? Social significance of eindeer among Finnish Saami in a rationalized pastoralist economy. In: Stammler, Florian et al. (Hrsg.): Good to eat, good to live with: nomads and animals in Northern Eurasia and Africa. Sendai: Center for Northeast Asian Studies, Tohoku Univ., S. 101-119  (Northeast Asian study series; 11)
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Project information

Project team

Judith Miggelbrink (Project management), Nuccio Mazzullo, Peter Koch

Cooperation

University of Frankfurt a. M., Arctic Centre der Universität Lappland (Finland)

Duration of project

07/2008–06/2012

Funded by

German Research Foundation in the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 586 "Difference and Integration"

Further information

Judith Miggelbrink
J_Miggelbrink(at)ifl-leipzig.de
Tel.: +49 341 600 55-109

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